not exhaustive, this is the most complete illustrated listing of
Hawaii's polyclad flatworms available. Species
were identified using the Newman and Cannon 2004 CD "Fabulous
the Bishop Museum publication Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii
(see bottom of page). Names followed by a number, such as "Acotylean
1" are taken directly from Newman & Cannon. When a worm
could not be found on the CD or in the book, a letter follows the
best-guess name, as in "Acotylean A."
These pages were put together with the generous help of Cory Pittman,
who supplied many photos, observations, and identifications. Cory
is curator of the Sea Slugs
of Hawai`i website (along with Pauline Fiene). We are sorry
to report that Leslie Newman, who was of such great help to us over
the years, passed away in September 2015. We understand that a 2nd
edition of her book is forthcoming, this time with four additional
on one of the numbered groups below to see Hawaii worms with a similar
or browse the alphabetical
- Solid color or evenly translucent
(a few spots OK)
- Solid color with marginal bands
(a few spots OK)
- Longitudinal stripes
- Streaks or lines.
- Spots or blotches.
- Mottled or speckled
- Mottled / speckled w marginal bands
Thanks to Scott Johnson,
Fiene, Ron Holcom, Dennis McCrea, Mike Ryan, David Rolla, Tina
Owens, Bill Stohler, Ralph
Cooper, and all other sharp-eyed diver/photographers whose photos
appear here, and special thanks to Leslie Newman, without whose
painstaking work few of these worms could ever have been identified.
The best published reference on Hawaiian marine flatworms is the
chapter "Phylum Platyhelminthes" by Jean Poulter, which
appears on pages 13-58 of Reef
and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, Section 2 edited by Dennis M.
Devaney and Lucius G. Eldredge (1987). However, many species included
on this website are not discussed by Poulter, and
some species discussed by Poulter are not included here.
The best general book on polyclad flatworms for the layperson is
Marine Flatworms, the World
of Polyclads by Leslie Newman and Lester Cannon, published
in Australia by CSIRO in 2003, and now available for Kindle. The
printed book is available here:
large number of polyclads from around the world are illustrated
and described on Newman
& Cannon's 2004 CD "Fabulous
Flatworms," which largely duplicates, updates, and adds
to the book above. However,
the CD appears to be out of print and used copies are expensive.
It used to be available at http://www.publish.csiro.au
Museum list of Hawaiian flatworms (largely out of date)
Keoki Stender's Marine Life Photography website (Hawaii
Wolfgang Seifarth's Marine
Flatworms of the World
Reef Life - polyclad flatworm page